Andromonoecious subshrubs or trees with contact dermatitis-causing exudate. Leaves generally evergreen, alternate, simple, sessile to petiolate, entire, chartaceous to coriaceous; domatia usually present in secondary vein axils abaxially. Inflorescences terminal and/or axillary thyrsoids. Flowers pedicellate, articulate; perianth 5-parted; calyx imbricate, cylindrical to campanulate; corolla of reflexed petals; stamens (6–)8–10(–12), fertile stamens 1(–4), much larger and exserted; filaments basally connate into a staminal tube; pistillode very reduced; staminodes 0 or in bisexual and male flowers reduced; disk 0; gynoecium pseudomonomerous; style straight to sigmoid (sometimes approaching gynobasic), apical or lateral; stigma punctiform, obscure; ovule basal. Drupe reniform, 1-locular, subtended by hypocarp, sigmoid to pyriform (rarely 0), white, green, yellow, or red; pericarp woody with large rectangular cavities containing caustic oils; exocarp greenish to brown to black. Seed with reniform embryo. n = 12, 29.
Eleven or more species, Honduras south to Paraguay, Brazil and Bolivia. Anacardium occidentale is cultivated pantropically.
Original Publication: Anacardium L., Sp. Pl. 383 (1753)
Acajou (Tournefort) Adans. (1763)
Rhinocarpus Bert. and Balb. ex Humb., Bonpl. and Kunth (1824)
Mitchell, Brittonia 44: 331-338 (1992), rev.
Mitchell and Mori, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 42: 1–76 (1987), rev.